Human and Mouse
Quantify the expression of hundreds of genes involved in core metabolic processes and signaling pathways in the context of cancer and immunity. The underlying molecular mechanisms behind alterations in metabolic pathways, signaling pathways, and cell stress can now be fully elucidated, giving researchers a complementary tool to traditional metabolite assays for profiling metabolic checkpoints and discovering potential therapeutic targets.
Details & data
Key applications include:
- How does cancer impact normal metabolic function?
- Study key pathways involved in reprogrammed metabolism
- Identify key changes that can be exploited for therapeutic development
- How does the immune response change as a result of the alterations in metabolism?
- Profile immune cell types
- Link pathway activity to immune phenotype
- How is metabolism altered in disease?
- Understanding disease pathogenesis
- Identify potential therapeutic targets
Gene Coverage across Core Themes of Metabolism
|Theme||Description||Pathways||# Human Genes||# Mouse Genes|
|Biosynthesis and Anabolic Pathways||The processes involved in the production of complex macromolecules by enzymecatalyzed biosynthetic pathways. The products of these pathways are required for nearly all cellular functions, including proliferation.||Amino Acid Synthesis, Arginine Metabolism, Cell Cycle, Fatty Acid Synthesis, Glutamine Metabolism, Glycolysis, IDH1/2 Activity, Mitochondrial Respiration, Nucleotide Synthesis, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Tryptophan/Kynurenine Metabolism, Vitamin and Cofactor Metabolism||354||348|
|Cell Stress||Cells are impacted by the availability of nutrients and presence of toxic compounds. Adaptive responses to the stress are required for tumorigenesis, metastasis, and immune responses.||DNA Damage Repair, Hypoxia, KEAP1/NRF2 Pathway, Reactive Oxygen Response||82||82|
|Nutrient Capture and Catabolic Pathways||The processes involved in the breakdown of macromolecules, scavenging of cellular materials, or import of nutrients in order to stimulate ATP production or fuel anabolic pathways.||Amino Acid Transporters, Autophagy, Endocytosis, Fatty Acid Oxidation, Glucose Transport, Lysosomal Degradation, Nucleotide Salvage||161||159|
|Metabolic Signaling||The pathways that are commonly disrupted in cancer cells or altered in immune cells that impact metabolic function. In the context of cancer, mutations allow these regulated signaling pathways to allow for metabolic change enabling tumorigenesis.||AMPK, mTOR, MAPK, Myc, NF-kB, p53 Pathway, PI3K, TCR and Costimulatory Signaling, TLR Signaling||237||235|
|Transcriptional Regulation||Processes involved in the alteration of epigenetic and transcriptional activity of the cell that enables sustained metabolic reprogramming. This reprogramming allows for tumorigenesis and underlies stable changes in immune cell phenotype.||Epigenetic Regulation, Transcriptional Regulation||77||69|
Metabolic Pathways Panel Functional Annotations
Functional annotations for different pathways and processes were assigned to the genes in the Metabolic Pathways Panel. The pathways and processes that are included in this panel provide a comprehensive view of cellular metabolism.
|Amino Acid Synthesis||93||89||MAPK||52||52|
|Amino Acid Transporters||9||9||Mitochondrial Respiration||73||72|
|Cell Cycle||65||65||Nucleotide Salvage||23||23|
|DNA Damage Repair||31||31||Nucleotide Synthesis||48||48|
|Fatty Acid Oxidation||24||21||Pentose Phosphate Pathway||19||19|
|Fatty Acid Synthesis||11||11||Reactive Oxygen Response||37||37|
|Glucose Transport||6||5||TCR and Costimulatory Signaling||54||54|
|Glutamine Metabolism||31||30||TLR Signaling||33||31|
|IDH1/2 Activity||15||15||Vitamin and Cofactor Metabolism||28||28|
|KEAP1/NRF2 Pathway||5||5||Internal Reference||20||20|
Immune Cell Profiling
Genes included in the Human Metabolic Pathways Panel provide unique cell profiling data to measure the relative abundance of 14 different human immune cell types¹. The table below summarizes each cell type represented by gene content in the panel, as qualified through biostatistical approaches and selected literature in the field of immunology.
|Cell Type||# Human|
|Cell Type||# Human
|B cells||9||Mast Cclls||4|
|CD8 T cells||2||NK CD56dim cells||3|
|Cytotoxic cells||10||NK cells||2|
|Dendritic cells||3||T cells||6|
|Exhausted CD8||4||Th1 cells||1|
Selected Panel References
- Danaher, P et al. Gene Expression Markers of Tumor Infiltrating Leukocytes. J Immunother Cancer. 2017;21(5):18.
- Peng, X et al. Molecular Characterization and Clinical Relevance of Metabolic Expression Subtypes in Human Cancers. Cell Reports. 2018;23(1):255-69.
- DeBerardinis RJ, Chandel, NS. Fundamentals of Cancer Metabolism. Science Advances. 2016;2(5).
- O’Neill LA et al. A Guide to Immunometabolism for Immunologists. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2016;16(9):553-65.
- Stine, ZE et al. MYC, Metabolism, and Cancer. Cancer Discovery. 2015;10:1024-39.
- Renner, K et al. Metabolic Hallmarks of Tumor and Immune Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment. Frontiers in Immunology. 2017;8:248.
- Andrejava, G and Rathmell, JC. Similarities and Distinctions of Cancer and Immune Metabolism in Inflammation and Tumors. Cell Metabolism. 2017;26(1):49-70.