Neuropathology Panel

Human

Perform comprehensive multiplex gene expression analysis with 770 genes included in six fundamental themes of neurodegeneration: neurotransmission, neuron-glia interaction, neuroplasticity, cell structure integrity, neuroinflammation and metabolism.

Panel benefits

01

Understand mechanisms of Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Frontotemporal Dementia, Huntington’s Disease and other neurological disorders

02

Allows you to measure the abundance of five important cell types including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells

Details & data

Cell types and qualified gene content

Genes included in the Neuropathology Panels provide unique cell profiling data for measuring the abundance of five important cell types including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells. The table below summarizes each cell type represented in the panels along with the gene content qualified through current literature references.

 

Cell TypeCell DescriptionAssociated
Human Genes
Associated
Mouse Gene
NeuronsNeuronal cell death and loss of function is a key driver of neurodegeneration.DLX1, DLX2, GRM2, ISLR2, SLC17A6, TBR1Dix1, Dix2, Grm2, Isir2, Sic17a6, Tbr1
AstrocytesAstrocytes represent the most numerous and diverse glial cells in the brain, responsible for a wide variety of homeostatic functions including modulation of synaptic function, network regulation, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, among others. The loss of normal homeostatic functions and gain of toxic functions is implicated in the onset and progression of neurodegeneration.ALDH1L1, EGFR
ENTPD2, GDPD2
ITGA7, KIAA1161
NWD1, SOX9
Aldh1l1, Egfr, Entpd2, Gdpd2, Itga7, Al464131,
Nwd1, Sox9
MicrogliaMicroglia represent a CNS resident myeloid cell population ontologically distinct from peripheral macrophages/monocytes. Microglia act to maintain brain homeostasis, contribute to neuroplasticity, and serve as a first line of innate immune defense in the brain. Their activation may serve as an early indicator of pathology, while chronic microglia activation or dysfunction may contribute to disease pathogenesis.GPR84, IRF8 LRRC25, NCF1 TLR2, TNF AIF1, TMEM119 ITGAM, CX3CR1 P2RY12, SPI1Gpr84, Irf8, Lrrc25,
Ncf1, Tlr2, Aif1, Tmem119, Itgam, Cx3cr1, P2ry12, Spi1
OligodendrocytesOligodendrocytes are highly specialized glial cells that synthesize myelin to ensheath axons of the central nervous system. Injury to or loss of oligodendrocyte function puts neuronal network function and survival at risk. Oligondendrocyte injury and death and axonal demyelination are hallmarks of some devastating neurological diseases.BCAS1, ERBB3 FA2H, GAL3ST1 GJB1, GSN MYRF, NINJ2 PLLP, PLXNB3 PRKCQ, SOX10 UGT8Bcas1, Erbb3 Fa2h, Gal3st1 Gjb1, Gsn Myrf, Ninj2 Pllp, Plxnb3 Prkcq, Sox10 Ugt8a
Endothelial CellsEndothelial cells form the blood-brain barrier and play a critical role in protecting the central nervous system from dangerous pathogens. Endothelial cells are equipped with a defense system against oxidative stress and their dysfunction can release inflammatory and neurotoxic agents in the CNS.CLDN5, EMCN ESAM, FLT1 ICAM2, LSRCldn5, Emcn Esam, Flt1 Icam2, Lsr

 

Fundamental gene themes

Functional annotations for 23 fundamental pathways and processes were assigned across all genes in the Neuropathology Panels allowing for a practical view of important aspects of the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disease.

 

Fundamental ThemesDescriptionAnnotationHuman GenesMouse Genes
NeurotransmissionNeurotransmission is the core function of the nervous system, and is critically impaired in neurodegenerative disorders.Transmitter Release
Vesicular Trafficking
Transmitter Response/Reuptake
Transmitter Synthesis and Storage
165
156
148
59
164
155
147
59
Neuron-Glia InteractionGlia protect neurons and maintain homeostasis within the CNS, making their function crucial to brain health and the prevention of neurodegenerative disordersMyelination
Secretion of Trophic Factors
47
48
47
48
Neuroplasticity, Development, and AgingThe ability of the nervous system to form new connections during development and throughout life in response to environmental changes or injury. The brain's ability to repair itself declines with age and loss of plasticity is characteristic of neurodegenerative disorders.Growth Factors
Angiogenesis
Chromatin Modification
Apoptosis
150
78
62
61
149
82
62
59
Compartmentalization and Structural IntegrityNeurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a relentlessly progressive loss of the functional and structural integrity of the nervous system.Neuronal Cytoskeleton
Axon and Dendrite Structure
Inter-Neuron Connectivity
Tissue Integrity
17
160
166
45
17
159
166
44
NeuroinflammationInflammation within the central nervous system which may be initiated by neuronal death, aberrant protein aggregation, infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites or autoimmunity.Activated Microglia
Matrix Remodeling
Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines
92
5
52
97
7
50
MetabolismImpaired metabolic pathways, including RNA transcription/splicing, protein translation/degradation, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, autophagy, and oxidativeUnfolded Protein Response
Oxidative Stress
Transcription and mRNA
48
91
47
33
44
41
47
91
46
33
44
41

 

Genes in panel


Download full list
(176 KB)

References

Published use of this panel

Rosen, Ezra Y., Wexler, Eric M., Versano, R., Coppola, G., Gao, F., Winden, Kellen D., Oldham, Michael C., Martens, L., Zhou, P., Farese, Robert V., Geschwind, Daniel H. Functional Genomic Analyses Identify Pathways Dysregulated by Progranulin Deficiency, Implicating Wnt Signaling. Neuron 71, 1030-1042 (2011).

Chiu, Isaac M, Morimoto, Emiko T A, Goodarzi, Hani, Liao, Jennifer T, O’Keeffe, Sean, Phatnani, Hemali P, Muratet, Michael, Carroll, Michael C, Levy, Shawn, Tavazoie, Saeed, Myers, Richard M, Maniatis, Tom A neurodegeneration-specific gene-expression signature of acutely isolated microglia from an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model. Cell Reports 4, 385-401 (2013).

Hickman Suzanne E, Kingery Nathan D, Ohsumi Toshiro K, Borowsky Mark L, Wang Li-chong, Means Terry K, El Khoury Joseph The microglial sensome revealed by direct RNA sequencing. Nature Neuroscience 16, 1896-1905 (2013).

Zhang, Gaiteri, Bodea, Wang, McElwee, Podtelezhnikov, Zhang, Xie, Tran, Dobrin, Fluder, Clurman, Melquist, Narayanan, Suver, Shah, Mahajan, Gillis, Mysore, MacDonald, Lamb, Bennett, Molony, Stone, Gudnason, Myers, Schadt, Neuma Integrated Systems Approach Identifies Genetic Nodes and Networks in Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease. Cell 153, 707-720 (2013).

 

Scientific references informing panel creation

Twine, Natalie A, Janitz, Karolina, Wilkins, Marc R, Janitz, Michal Whole transcriptome sequencing reveals gene expression and splicing differences in brain regions affected by Alzheimer’s disease. PloS One 6, e16266 (2011).

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