Perform comprehensive multiplex gene expression analysis with 770 genes included in six fundamental themes of neurodegeneration: neurotransmission, neuron-glia interaction, neuroplasticity, cell structure integrity, neuroinflammation and metabolism.

• Understand mechanisms of Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Frontotemporal Dementia, Huntington’s Disease and other neurological disorders
• Allows you to measure the abundance of five important cell types including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells

Functional annotations for 23 fundamental pathways and processes were assigned across all genes in the Neuropathology Panels allowing for a practical view of important aspects of the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disease.

Fundamental Themes of NeurodegenerationDescriptionAnnotationHuman GenesMouse Genes
NeurotransmissionNeurotransmission is the core function of the nervous system, and is critically impaired in neurodegenerative disorders.Transmitter Release
Vesicular Trafficking
Transmitter Response/Reuptake
Transmitter Synthesis and Storage
165
156
148
59
164
155
147
59
Neuron-Glia Interaction
Glia protect neurons and maintain homeostasis within the CNS, making their function crucial to brain health and the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders.Myelination
Secretion of Trophic Factors
47
48
47
48
Neuroplasticity, Development, and Aging
The ability of the nervous system to form new connections during development and throughout life in response to environmental changes or injury. The brain's ability to repair itself declines with age and loss of plasticity is characteristic of neurodegenerative disorders.Growth Factors
Angiogenesis
Chromatin Modification
Apoptosis
150
78
62
61
149
82
62
59
Compartmentalization and Structural IntegrityNeurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a relentlessly progressive loss of the functional and structural integrity of the nervous system.
Neuronal Cytoskeleton
Axon and Dendrite Structure
Inter-Neuron Connectivity
Tissue Integrity
17
160
166
45
17
159
166
44
NeuroinflammationInflammation within the central nervous system which may be initiated by neuronal death, aberrant protein aggregation, infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites or autoimmunity.Activated Microglia
Matrix Remodeling
Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines
92
5
52
97
7
50
MetabolismImpaired metabolic pathways, including RNA transcription/splicing, protein translation/degradation, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, autophagy, and oxidative stress are hallmarks and causative agents in neurodegenerative disorders.Unfolded Protein Response
Oxidative Stress
Transcription and mRNA Splicing
Autophagy
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Lipid Metabolism
48
91
47
33
44
41
47
91
46
33
44
41

Genes included in the Neuropathology Panels provide unique cell profiling data for measuring the abundance of five important cell types including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells. The table below summarizes each cell type represented in the panels along with the gene content qualified through current literature references.

Cell TypeCell DescriptionAssociated
Human Genes
Associated
Mouse Genes
NeuronsNeuronal cell death and loss of function is a key driver of neurodegeneration.DLX1, DLX2
GRM2, ISLR2
SLC17A6, TBR1
Dix1, Dix2
Grm2, Isir2
Sic17a6, Tbr1
AstrocytesAstrocytes represent the most numerous and diverse glial cells in the brain, responsible for a wide variety of homeostatic functions including modulation of synaptic function, network regulation, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, among others. The loss of normal homeostatic functions and gain of toxic functions is implicated in the onset and progression of neurodegeneration.ALDH1L1, EGFR
ENTPD2, GDPD2
ITGA7, KIAA1161
NWD1, SOX9
Aldh1l1, Egfr
Entpd2, Gdpd2
Itga7, Al464131
Nwd1, Sox9
MicrogliaMicroglia represent a CNS resident myeloid cell population ontologically distinct from peripheral macrophages/monocytes. Microglia act to maintain brain homeostasis, contribute to neuroplasticity, and serve as a first line of innate immune defense in the brain. Their activation may serve as an early indicator of pathology, while chronic microglia activation or dysfunction may contribute to disease pathogenesis.GPR84, IRF8
LRRC25, NCF1
TLR2, TNF
AIF1, TMEM119
ITGAM, CX3CR1
P2RY12, SPI1
Gpr84, Irf8
Lrrc25, Ncf1
Tlr2, Aif1
Tmem119, Itgam
Cx3cr1, P2ry12
Spi1
OligodendrocytesOligodendrocytes are highly specialized glial cells that synthesize myelin to ensheath axons of the central nervous system. Injury to or loss of oligodendrocyte function puts neuronal network function and survival at risk. Oligondendrocyte injury and death and axonal demyelination are hallmarks of some devastating neurological diseases.BCAS1, ERBB3
FA2H, GAL3ST1
GJB1, GSN
MYRF, NINJ2
PLLP, PLXNB3
PRKCQ, SOX10
UGT8
Bcas1, Erbb3
Fa2h, Gal3st1
Gjb1, Gsn
Myrf, Ninj2
Pllp, Plxnb3
Prkcq, Sox10
Ugt8a
Endothelial CellsEndothelial cells form the blood-brain barrier and play a critical role in protecting the central nervous system from dangerous pathogens. Endothelial cells are equipped with a defense system against oxidative stress and their dysfunction can release inflammatory and neurotoxic agents in the CNS.CLDN5, EMCN
ESAM, FLT1
ICAM2, LSR
MYCT1, NOSTRIN
TIE1
Cldn5, Emcn
Esam, Flt1
Icam2, Lsr
Myct1, Nostrin
Tie1